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Atari Jaguar FAQ

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  Created by Robert Jung (rjung@mac.com), because no one else wanted to.
      Dedicated to ASTEROIDS, for getting me hooked in the first place

Last update: 8/3/2003

==============================================================================

This file is not maintained by, overseen by, endorsed, or otherwise
associated with Atari Corp., JTS, or any of its subsidiaries.  It's just a
collection of questions and answers, with a few news tidbits thrown in.

This file is posted on a monthly basis to rec.games.video.atari,
alt.atari-jaguar.discussion, news.answers, and rec.answers around the first
of the month.  The latest version of this file is also available on the
world- wide web at http://www.digiserve.com/eescape/atari/Atari.shtml.  It is
maintained by Robert Jung at rjung@mac.com on the Internet.  Send
corrections, news, updates, comments, questions, or other stuff to that
address.  All mail is welcome!

Updates since the last publicly posted FAQ have a percent sign (%) in the
first column.

Robert tries to get the latest news and information into this FAQ; however,
he's only human, and might miss something important due to real-life demands.
Feel free to send in news tidbits and announcements to rjung@mac.com for
inclusion in this FAQ.

==============================================================================
 
Q. What was the Atari Jaguar/Jaguar64?
 
A. The Atari Jaguar was the world's first 64-bit home console video game
   system.  Developed after three years of research, manufactured by IBM, the
   Jaguar was released in Fall 1993, and offered high-speed action,
   CD-quality sound, and polygon graphics processing beyond most other
   machines available at the time.

   Orignally released as the Jaguar, Atari had, at times, referred to the
   machine as the "Jaguar64" for marketing purposes.  For the sake of
   simplicity in this document, the term "Jaguar" will be used.

==============================================================================
 
Q. What was included when you bought a Jaguar?
 
A. The Jaguar was first sold for $250.  It came with the Jaguar itself, one
   controller, an AC adapter, a television RF switch box, and the CYBERMORPH
   video game.  Later on, the Jaguar was sold without a game, and as time
   progressed, the Jaguar was sold for $150, then $99.

==============================================================================
 
Q. What happened to Atari, anyway?
 
A. The trials and tribulations of Atari could fill a small book (and, in
   fact, once did).  To summarize VERY briefly, the history of Atari is as
   follows:
 
     1972   Atari Inc. founded by Nolan Bushnell from a $250 investment.
              Pong arcade game becomes a smash sensation.
     1976   Atari Inc. sold by Bushnell to Warner Inc. for $28 million.
     1980   Atari Inc. posts record sales.  $2 billion profits annually.
              Atari occupies 80 offices in Sunnyvale, CA.
     1983   Decline of video games and irresponsible spending by Atari Inc.
              results in record losses ($536 million, up to $2 million
              daily).
     1984   Warner divides Atari Inc.  Home division (Atari Corp.) is sold to
              Jack Tramiel.
     1985   Atari Corp. releases Atari ST home computer.
     1989   Atari Corp. releases Atari Lynx, the world's first color
              hand-held video game system (see the Atari Lynx FAQ).
     1993   Atari Games becomes Time-Warner Interactive.
     1993   Atari Corp. releases Atari Jaguar, the world's first 64-bit home
              video game system.
     1996   Time-Warner Interactive (Atari Games) sold to WMS.
     1996   Atari Corp. announces reverse merger with JTS Corporation.
     1996   Atari Corp. and JTS connsumate deal on July 31 1996.
     1998   Hasbro acquires the rights to Atari Corp.'s name and properties
     1999   Hasbro releases their rights to the Jaguar to the public; Atari
              is reborn as their new home video game label.
     2000   Infogrammes Entertainment purchases Hasbro Interactive,
              including all of Hasbro's rights to the Atari name and all of
              its properties, for $95,000,000 in Infogrames stock and
              $5,000,000 in cash.
     2003   Infogrammes changes its name to Atari.

==============================================================================
 
Q. What was IBM's role in the Jaguar?
 
A. IBM had a $500 million contract with Atari Corp. to assemble, test,
   package, and distribute Jaguar units.  Manufacturing was done at IBM's
   Charlotte, NC facility, and the Jaguar was IBM's first attempt at
   producing a consumer-grade product for an outside vendor.  By mid-1994,
   Jaguar units were also manufactured by Comptronix in Colorado Springs.
 
   Jaguar circuit boards were manufactured and assembled by an IBM
   subcontractor; IBM then cased, tested, and packaged final Jaguar units,
   which were then sent to Atari.  IBM had no participation in the actual
   design of the Jaguar chipset.

==============================================================================

Q. Okay, who did design the Jaguar?

A. The primary designers of the Jaguar were Martin Brennan and John
   Mathieson.  They started their own company in 1986 called Flare 1, and
   designed an original multiprocessor game console.  After the system was
   finished, Flare wanted to "evolve" the system, but needed funding for the
   job.  Atari was contacted, believed in the idea, and agreed to
   participate.  Atari, Brennan, and Mathieson started a new company called
   Flare 2 to develop the system. As Jaguar development moved along, it
   became apparent that the machine would leapfrog the then-new systems from
   Nintendo and Sega (the Super Nintendo and Sega Genesis, respectively), so
   they decided to bring the machine to light.  The entire process took three
   years, from initial design to production-ready models.

   The proprietary Jaguar chipsets were manufactured by Toshiba and Motorola.
   According to Chris Gibbs, Attention To Detail was asked to write
   technology demos for the Jaguar chipset.  The company opted to develop a
   game instead, resulting in the first Jaguar title, CYBERMORPH.

   The Flare design was was reportedly based on a project called "Loki,"
   developed by Sinclair Research.  Information about the Loki project can
   be found at http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/planet/lokifram.htm

   According to Jaguar developer Andrew Whittaker, "Some of that [Loki]
   technology also found a home in a machine called the SAM Coupe, which was
   manufactured and produced in the UK by MGT technologies (Bruce Gordon and
   Alan Miles, both ex-Sinclair staff also).  It shared many interesting
   features with the Jaguar in terms of its video chip, but the machine sold
   very badly in Europe and the company folded."

==============================================================================

Q. What are the specifications of the Jaguar?

A. Physical dimensions:

       Size: 9.5" x 10" x 2.5"
   Controls: Power on/off
    Display: Programmable screen resolution.  Horizontal resolution is
               dependent on the amount of scanline buffer space given to the
               "Tom" graphics processor.  Maximum vertical resolution varies
               according to the refresh rate (NTSC or PAL).  Reportedly, a
               stock Jaguar (without additional memory) running NTSC can
               display up to 576 rows of pixels.
             24-bit "True Color" display with 16,777,216 colors
               simultaneously (additional 8 bits of supplimental graphics
               data support possible)
             Multiple-resolution, multiple-color depth objects (monochrome,
               2-bit, 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit) can be used
               simultaneously
      Ports: Cartridge slot/expansion port (32 bits)
             RF video output
             Video edge connector (video/audio output)
               (supports NTSC and PAL; provides S-Video, Composite, RGB
               outputs, accessible by optional add-on connector)
             Two controller ports
             Digital Signal Processor port (includes high-speed synchronous
               serial input/output)
Controllers: Eight-directional joypad
             Size 6.25" x 5" x 1.6", cord 7 feet
             Three fire buttons (A, B, C)
             Pause and Option buttons
             12-key keypad (accepts game-specific overlays)

  The Jaguar has five processors which are contained in three chips.  Two of
  the chips are proprietary designs, nicknamed "Tom" and "Jerry".  The third
  chip is a standard Motorola 68000, and used as a coprocessor.  Tom and
  Jerry are built using an 0.5 micron silicon process.  With proper
  programming, all five processors can run in parallel.

  - "Tom"
    - 750,000 transistors, 208 pins
    - Graphics Processing Unit (processor #1)
      - 32-bit RISC architecture (32/64 processor)
        - 64 registers of 32 bits wide
        - Has access to all 64 bits of the system bus
        - Can read 64 bits of data in one instruction
      - Rated at 26.591 MIPS (million instructions per second)
      - Runs at 26.591 MHz
      - 4K bytes of zero wait-state internal SRAM
      - Performs a wide range of high-speed graphic effects
      - Programmable
    - Object processor (processor #2)
      - 64-bit RISC architecture
      - 64-bit wide registers
      - Programmable processor that can act as a variety of different video
        architectures, such as a sprite engine, a pixel-mapped display, a
        character-mapped system, and others.
    - Blitter (processor #3)
      - 64-bit RISC architecture
      - 64-bit wide registers
      - Performs high-speed logical operations
      - Hardware support for Z-buffering and Gouraud shading
    - DRAM memory controller
      - 64 bits
      - Accesses the DRAM directly

  - "Jerry"
    - 600,000 transistors, 144 pins
    - Digital Signal Processor (processor #4)
      - 32 bits (32-bit registers)
      - Rated at 26.6 MIPS (million instructions per second)
      - Runs at 26.6 MHz
      - Same RISC core as the Graphics Processing Unit
        - Not limited to sound generation
      - 8K bytes of zero wait-state internal SRAM
      - CD-quality sound (16-bit stereo)
        - Number of sound channels limited by software
        - Two DACs (stereo) convert digital data to analog sound signals
      - Full stereo capabilities
      - Wavetable synthesis, FM synthesis, FM Sample synthesis, and AM
        synthesis
    - A clock control block, incorporating timers, and a UART
    - Joystick control

  - Motorola 68000 (processor #5)
    - Runs at 13.295MHz
    - General purpose control processor

   Communication is performed with a high speed 64-bit data bus, rated at
   106.364 megabytes/second.  The 68000 is only able to access 16 bits of
   this bus at a time.

   The Jaguar contains two megabytes (16 megabits) of fast page-mode DRAM,
   in four chips with 512 K each.  Game cartridges can support up to six
   megabytes (48 megabits) of information, and can contain an EEPROM
   (electrically erasable/programmable read-only memory) chip to save game
   information and settings.  Up to 100,000 writes can be performed with the
   EEPROM; after that, future writes may not be saved (performance varies
   widely, but 100,000 is a guaranteed minimum).  Depending on use, this
   limit should take from 10 to 50 years to reach.

   The Jaguar uses 24-bit addressing, and is reportedly capable of accessing
   data as follows:

           Six megabytes cartridge ROM
           Eight megabytes DRAM
           Two megabytes miscellaneous/expansion

   All of the processors can access the main DRAM memory area directly.  The
   Digital Signal Processor and the Graphics Processor can execute code out
   of either their internal caches, or out of main memory.  The only
   limitations are that

   (1) "jump" instructions in main memory have certain restrictions; the JMP
         (unconditional jump) command is longword-aligned, while the JR
         (jump-indexed-by-register) command must be either word- or longword-
         aligned.  And
   (2) running out of the cache is much faster (up to four times faster) and
         efficient.

   Some believe that the inability to jump/branch in main memory makes the
   main memory feature useless.

   Swapping data between the caches and the main memory is a quick, low
   overhead operation, and therefore the main memory is often used as "swap
   space" for cache code.  The RISC compiler included in the latest Jaguar
   developer's kit produced code that transparently swaps code through the
   cache.  This effectively allowed developers write RISC code without
   concern for the cache size limits.

   Compressed cartridge data can be uncompressed in real-time, and ratios of
   up to 14:1 have been cited.  In theory, a Jaguar cartridge can store up to
   84 megabytes (672 megabits) of data, though actual results will vary
   widely (most often, images are compressed, while sound and code are not).
   Compression is performed with BPEG, an enhanced JPEG image decompression
   mechanism.  BPEG supercedes the former JagPEG algorithm, working up to 10
   times faster and with more flexibility.

   Other Jaguar features:
   - Support for ComLynx I/O for communications with the Atari Lynx hand-held
       game system and networked multiconsole games (on DSP port, accessible
       by optional add-on connector).  Networking of up to 32 Jaguar units
       available.
   - The two controller ports can be expanded to support "dozens" of
     controllers
     - Digital and analog interfaces
     - Keyboards, mice, and light guns are possible
   - Expansion port allows connection to cable TV and other networks
   - Digital Signal Processor port allows connection to modems and digital
     audio peripherals (such as DAT players)
   - One megabyte per second serial interface
   - 9600 baud, RS-232 serial port (accessible with optional interface)
   - General-purpose I/O bits via the cartridge port
   - Can accomodate future expansions of different processor types, I/O
       types, video types, and memory types and/or quantities.

==============================================================================
 
Q. Was the Jaguar really a 64-bit system?
 
A. The question is hard to resolve, largely because the definition of what
   constitutes an "N-bit" system has not been set.  Of the five processors in
   the Jaguar, only the object processor and the blitter are "true" 64-bit
   components.  Because the blitter and the object processor are in the Tom
   chip, by extension Tom is a 64-bit chip.  Furthermore, the Jaguar also
   used a 64-bit memory architecture, according to Jez San of Argonaut
   Software.

   Some say the Jaguar should be considered a 32-bit system, as that is the
   maximum register size in the programmable processors (the 68000, the
   graphics processor, and the DMA sound processor).  Others say the Jaguar
   can be considered a 64-bit system, because 64-bit components are used, and
   the GPU can access 64 bits of data if required.  Again, the lack of an
   agreed-upon definition serves to complicate the issue.

   According to Jaguar designer John Mathieson, "Jaguar has a 64-bit memory
   interface to get a high bandwidth out of cheap DRAM. ... Where the system
   needs to be 64 bit then it is 64 bit, so the Object Processor, which takes
   data from DRAM and builds the display is 64 bit; and the blitter, which
   does all the 3D rendering, screen clearing, and pixel shuffling, is 64
   bit.  Where the system does not need to be 64 bit, it isn't.  There is no
   point in a 64 bit address space in a games console!  3D calculations and
   audio processing do not generally use 64-bit numbers, so there would be no
   advantage to 64 bit processors for this.

   "Jaguar has the data shifting power of a 64 bit system, which is what
   matters for games, so can reasonably be considered a 64 bit system.  But
   that doesn't mean it has to be 64 bits throughout."

   For the record, the opinion of most third party developers and observers
   is that the Jaguar is indeed a 64-bit system.  The emphasis is on the word
   "system"; while not every component is 64 bits, the Jaguar architecture,
   as a COMPLETE SYSTEM, is.

==============================================================================
 
Q. The Jaguar used a 68000.  Isn't that the CPU?
 
A. Again, quoting from Jaguar designer John Mathieson, "It may be the CPU in
   the sense that it's the centre of operation, and boot-straps the machine,
   and starts everything else going; however, it is not the centre of
   Jaguar's power. ... The 68000 is like a manager who does no real work, but
   tells everybody else what to do."

   And...

   "Atari were keen to use a 68K family device, and we looked closely at
   various members.  We did actually build a couple of 68030 versions of the
   early beta developers systems, and for a while were going to use a 68020.
   However, this turned out too expensive.  We also considered the
   possibility of no [Motorola 680x0 chip] at all.  I always felt it was
   important to have some normal processor, to give developers a warm feeling
   when they start.  The 68K is inexpensive and does that job well.  I
   maintain that it's only there to read the joysticks."

   In rebuttal, Jaguar developer Andrew Whittaker notes, "In practice, what
   many of us did with our titles was use the 68000 for AI and gameplay
   logic, and have the custom chips drive the rendering to screen and 3D
   code."

==============================================================================
 
Q. How could a graphics processor be the CPU?
 
A. The 64-bit custom graphics chip was a good general purpose RISC unit, but
   it had been optimized for graphics work.  Developers were free to specify
   which processor(s) to use in a program, as desired.

==============================================================================
 
Q. What kind of special effects could the Jaguar do?
 
A. The Jaguar was capable of doing the following visual effects:
 
   - High-speed scrolling (Object Processor).
   - Texture mapping on two- and three-dimensional objects (GPU and Blitter).
   - Morphing one object into another object (GPU).
   - Scaling, rotation, distortion, and skewing of sprites and images
       (Object Processor).
   - Lighting and shading from single and multiple light sources (GPU and
       Blitter).
   - Transparency (Object Processor).
   - "Rendering" up to 850 million one-bit pixels/second (35 million 24-bit
       pixels/second, 26 million 32-bit pixels/second), or 50 million Goroud
       shaded pixels/second.  "Rendering" is believed to mean transferring a
       pixel from a frame buffer to the screen.
   - Sprites of "unlimited" size and quantity.  Realistically, sprites can be
       over 1,000 pixels wide/tall, and the number of sprites allowed is
       limited by processor cycles instead of a fixed value in hardware
       (Object processor).
   - Programmable screen resolutions, from 160 to 800 pixels per line.  The
       resolution can be increased even further with additional hardware up
       to a reported 1350 pixels per line.

   One of the Jaguar modes is called "CRY mode", which supports lighting and
   effects in 3D graphics.  Red, green, and blue color elements are ranged
   from 0 to 255, and the lighting level for any pixel can be changed by
   setting one byte linearly.  E.g., the relative proportions of red, blue,
   and green are indicated with one byte, while a second byte selects an
   overall intensity of 0 to 255.  CRY allows much smoother shading of single
   colors, but doesn't allow blending between colors as smoothly.

   Actual graphics performance is hard to measure, as there are no industry-
   standard benchmarks.  Rebellion Software has claimed that the Jaguar can
   render "10,000 Gourard shaded, large, 65536 color, any shape polygons per
   second," while still performing other tasks.  Presumably this level can
   be increased further with optimized programming; indeed, some unofficial
   calculations speculate that FIGHT FOR LIFE may generate between 20,000 to
   40,000 texture-mapped polygons per second.

   A key to understanding the Jaguar's performance is to realize that most
   effects are accomplished by programming one of the processors to do the
   job.  To perform texture-mapping, for instance, required a developer to
   write a texture-mapping routine for the GPU and/or blitter, then call it
   as needed.  The general-purpose nature of the Jaguar architecture gave
   developers a lot of flexibility; unfortunately, the drawback was that
   software routines for such effects are invariably slower and less
   efficient than dedicated hardware chips and components.

==============================================================================
 
Q. How come the Jaguar claims to have "32-bit" graphics, when only 24 bits
   are needed to render 16 million colors?
 
A. The additional 8-bits was for programmers to implement whatever visual
   effects might be desired.  Examples cited include Z-buffering (for polygon
   graphics) and an alpha channel (for transparency).

==============================================================================
 
Q. Who were the third-party publishers/developers for the Jaguar?
 
A. The following companies have, at one time or another, been announced as
   official developers, licensees, or publishers for the Jaguar.  Note that
   an official announcement was not an obligation for a company to produce
   Jaguar-related products; many times, it merely meant that the company made
   a commitment to "consider" producing product(s) for Atari.

     Attention to Detail (ATD)                       Imagitech Design
     Llamasoft                Rebellion              Handmade Software
     Anco Software Ltd.       Maxis Software         Telegames
     Beyond Games Inc.        Microids               Tiertex Ltd.
     Dimension Technologies   Midnite Software Inc.  Titus Eurosoft
     Ocean Software Ltd.      Tradewest              High Voltage Software
     Rebellion Software       Trimark Interactive    Krisalis Software Ltd.
     Virtual Experience       U.S. Gold Ltd.         Loriciel U.S.A.
     Silmarils                Millenium              Park Place Productions
     Ubi Soft                 Gremlin Software       Microprose/S. Holobyte
     Accolade                 Virgin                 Interplay
     21st Century Software    Activision             Id Software
     Twilight                 Brainstorm             3D Games
     All Systems Go           Argonaut Software      Euro-Soft
     ICD Incorporated         Photosurrealism        DTMC
     Epic Megagames           V-Reel Productions     Sunsoft
     Domark Group Ltd.        Elite                  Br0derbund
     Williams (Midway/Williams)                      Rage Software
     Readysoft                Spacetec               Visual Concepts
     Bullfrog Productions     Imagineer              Jaleco
     Sculptured Software      Williams Brothers      Accent Media Productions
     Anthill Industries       Audio/Visual Magic     Bethesda Softworks
     Black Scorpion Software  Visual Sciences Ltd.   Steinberg Soft-und Hdw
     Borta & Associates       Clearwater Software    Computer Music Cslt.
     Cybervision              CyberWare              Delta Music Systems Inc.
     Pixel Satori             Elite                  E-On
     EZ Score Software Inc.   GameTek Inc.           Genus Microprogramming
     H2O Design Corp.         HiSoft                 Limelight Media Inc.
     Manley & Associates      NMS Software Ltd.      PIXIS Interactive
     Rest Easy                Software Creations     Team Infinity
     Team 17 Software Ltd.    Techtonics             Technation Digital World
     Teque London Ltd.        Thrustmaster           American Laser Masters
     Tengen                   Eclipse                Zeppelin Games
     Time/Warner Interactive  Acid Software          20th Century Fox Int.
     Alfaro Corporation Ltd.  B.S.A.                 Bando Svenska AB
     Beris                    Bitmotion Software     Bizzare Computing
     Brandlewood Computers Ltd.                      Cannonball Software
     Celebrity Systems Inc.   Condor Software        Cross Products Ltd.
     DAP Developments         Data Design            Denton Designs Ltd.
     Diskimage                Electro Brain Corp.    Electrom
     Extreme                  Factor 5               Flair Software Ltd.
     Frankenstein Software    Funcom Productions     Human Soft Ltd.
     JVC Musical Industries Inc.                     Kungariket Multimedia
     Lost in Time Software    Malibu Interactive     Michton Inc.
     Media Technology Scandinavia                    Merit Industries Inc.
     Miracle Designs          Nebulous Games         Neon-Buttner
     i-SPACE                  Network 23 Software    NMS Software Ltd.
     Odyssey Software Inc.    Orion Technologies     Phobyx
     Rage Software Ltd.       Rainmaker Software     Riedel Software Prod.
     Scangames Interactive    Wave Quest Inc.        4Play
     Selgus Limited           Shadowsoft Inc.        Sigma Designs
     Sinister Development     Soft Enterprises       Softgold Gmbh
     Software 2000            Software Development Systems
     Tantalus Entertainment   Hyper Image            Virtual Artistry, Inc.
     Springer Spaniel         Core Design            Acclaim
     Electronic Arts          Level Seven            iThink, Inc.
     Arcade Zone              JV Enterprises         Fatal Design
     Moving Target Software Design                   Visual Dimensions 3D
     OMC Games                Dark Knight Games      Songbird Productions

   Also, Time-Warner Interactive had licensed the Jaguar architecture for
   use in arcade games.  The modified systems were referred to as "CoJag"
   architectures, with more memory, additional storage, and other
   additions.  More information can be found elsewhere in this FAQ.

==============================================================================
 
Q. What were all of the Jaguar games released?
 
A. Jaguar cartridge games:

   Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
   -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
   Air Cars             1-8    ICD            Midnite Sw.    Action/Driving
   Alien vs. Predator    1     Atari          Atari/         Action/Adventure
                                                Rebellion
   Atari Karts          1-2    Atari          Miracle        Sports
   Attack of the Mutant 1-2    Atari          Sunrise        Puzzle/Strategy
     Penguins
   Battlesphere         1-32(5)Scatologic     4Play          Action/Shooter
   Breakout 2000        1-2    Telegames      Atari          Action
   Brutal Sports        1-2    Telegames      Millenium/     Sports
     Football                                   Teque
   Bubsy in Fractured   1-2    Atari          Imagitec       Platform
     Furry Tales
   Cannon Fodder         1     Computer West  Virgin         Action
   Checkered Flag        1     Atari          Rebellion      Sports
   Club Drive           1-2    Atari          Atari          Action/Simulator
   Crescent Galaxy       1     Atari          Atari          Shooter
   Cybermorph            1     Atari          ATD            Action/Strategy
   Defender 2000        1-2    Atari          Llamasoft      Action/Arcade
   Doom                 1-2(1) Atari          id Software    Action/Adventure
   Double Dragon V:     1-2    Williams       Williams       Action/Fighting
     The Shadow Falls
   Dragon               1-2    Atari          Virgin         Action/Fighting
   Evolution:Dino Dudes  1     Atari          Imagitec       Puzzle/Strategy
   Fever Pitch Soccer   1-2    Atari          Atari          Sports
   Fight For Life       1-2    Atari          Atari          Action/Fighting
   Flashback             1     Tiertex Ltd.   U.S. Gold      Action/Adventure
   Flip Out              1     Atari          Gorilla Sys.   Action/Puzzle
   Hover Strike         1-2(2) Atari          Atari          Action/Shooter
   Hyper Force           1     Songbird Prod. Visual Impact  Action/Fighting
   I-war                1-2    Atari          Imagitec       Action/Shooter
   International        1-2    Telegames      Williams Br.   Sports
     Sensible Soccer
   Iron Soldier          1     Atari          Eclipse        Action/Simulator
   Iron Soldier 2        1     Telegames      Eclipse        Action/Shooter
     Limited Ed.
%  Jaguar Painter        1     Songbird Prod. Sinister Dev.  Puzzle/Strategy
   Kasumi Ninja         1-2    Atari          Handmade Sw.   Action/Fighting
   Missile Command 3D    1     Atari          Atari          Action/Arcade
   NBA Jam Tournament   1-4(4) Atari          High Voltage   Arcade
     Edition
   Pinball Fantasies    1-8(3) Computer West  Spidersoft     Action
   Pitfall: The Mayan    1     Activision     Imagitec       Action
     Adventure
   Power Drive Rally    1-8(3) Time-Warner    Rage           Action/Driving
   Protector            1-2    Songbird Prod. Bethesda Sw.   Arcade/Action
   Protector:Special Ed.1-2    Songbird Prod. Songbird Prod. Arcade/Action
   Raiden               1-2    Atari          Imagitec       Arcade
   Rayman                1     Ubi Soft Int.  UBI Soft Int.  Action/Platform
   Ruiner               1-4(3) Atari          High Voltage   Action/Pinball
   Skyhammer             1     Songbird Prod. Rebellion      Flight/Simulator
   Soccer Kid            1     Songbird Prod. Krisalis       Platform
   Space War 2000       1-2    Atari          B&C Comp.vis   Action
   Super Burnout        1-2    Atari          Shen           Action/Sports
   Supercross 3D        1-2    Atari          Tiertex        Sports
   Syndicate             1     Ocean          Bullfrog       Strategy
   Tempest 2000         1-2    Atari          Llamasoft      Action/Arcade
   Theme Park            1     Ocean          Bullfrog       Simulation
   Towers II             1     Telegames      JV Enterprises Adventure
   Troy Aikman NFL      1-2    Williams       Telegames      Sports
     Football
   Ultra Vortek         1-2    Atari          Beyond Games   Action/Fighting
   Val D'Isere Skiing   1-2    Atari          Virtual Studio Sports
     and Snowboarding
   White Men Can't      1-4(4) Atari          High Voltage   Sports
     Jump (w/Team Tap)
   Wolfenstein 3D        1     Atari          id Software    Action/Adventure
   Worms                1-16   Telegames      Team 17        Action/Strategy
   Zero 5                1     Telegames      Caspian Sw.    Action/Shooter
   Zool 2               1-2    Atari          Gremlin        Platform
   Zoop                  1     Atari          Viacom         Action/Puzzle


   Jaguar CD-ROM games:

   Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
   -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
   Baldies               1     Atari          Creative Edge  Puzzle/Strategy   
   Battlemorph           1     Atari          ATD            Action/Strategy
   Blue Lightning        1     Atari          ATD            Action
   Brain Dead 13         1     ReadySoft      ReadySoft      Action
   Dragon's Lair         1     ReadySoft      ReadySoft      Arcade
   Highlander            1     Atari          Lore Design    Action/Adventure
   Hover Strike:        1-2(2) Atari          Atari          Action/Shooter
     Unconquered Lands
   Iron Soldier 2        1     Telegames      Eclipse        Action/Shooter
%  Jag-Ads              N/A    Songbird Prod. Minuteman Prd. Video collection
   Myst                  1     Atari          Atari          Adventure
   Primal Rage          1-2    Time-Warner    Probe          Arcade
   Space Ace             1     ReadySoft      ReadySoft      Arcade
   Vid Grid             1-8(3) Atari          High Voltage   Puzzle
   World Tour Racing    1-2    Telegames      Teque          Sports

   (1) Multiplayer games supported by connecting multiple Jaguars together.
   (2) Cooperative play only.
   (3) Players alternate turns with one controller.
   (4) Three and four players can play simultaneously with the Jaguar Team
         Tap peripheral.
   (5) Up to 16 Jaguars can be networked together for simultaneous play; each
         Jaguar then supports two players simultaneously (pilot and gunner),
         allowing for 32 simultaneous players.

==============================================================================
 
Q. What were the unreleased Jaguar games?
 
A: The following games were announced at one time or another as being planned
   for the Jaguar.  With the dissolution of Atari, the chances are very slim
   that any of these games will ever be produced or released.  However, a few
   enterprising companies and individuals have considered plans to either
   finish their Jaguar titles for release, to sell finished-but-unreleased
   games, or to produce new games on their own.

   Announced Jaguar cartridge games (? = Uncertain entry):

   Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
   -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
   Allegiance           1-2?     ?            Team 17        Action/Strategy
   Al Michaels          1-2    Accolade/Atari Atari          Sports
     Announces Hardball
   Apeshit              1-2    Ocean          Ocean          Action/Arcade
   Arena Football       1-8    Atari          V-Reel Prod.   Sports
     League
   Assault: Covert Ops  1-2?   Midnite Sw     Midnite Sw     Action
   Automaniacs          1-2    Visual Dim.    Visual Dim.    Action/Driving
   Bases Loaded         1-2    Jaleco/Atari   Atari?         Sports
   Batman Forever       1-2?   Atari          Atari          Action
   Battlewheels 2025    1-2    Beyond Games   Beyond Games   Action
   Bong+ 1999           1-2?     ?            Just Claws     Action
   Brett Hull Hockey    1-2    Atari          Ringler        Sports
   Casino Royale        1-2?   Telegames      Telegames      Strategy
   Center Court Tennis  1-2    Zeppelin         ?            Sports
   Charles Barkley      1-4?     ?            Ringler        Sports
     Basketball
   Cisco Heat            1?    Jaleco/Atari   Atari          Action/Arcade
   'Dactyl Joust         1?    Atari          High Voltage   Action/Arcade?
   Deathwatch           1-2    Atari          Data Design    Action
   Demolition Man        1?    Atari          Virgin         Action/Shooting
   Dino Dudes 2          1     Atari          Imagitec       Puzzle/Strategy
   Dune Racer           1-2    Atari            ?            Action/Driving
   Dungeon Depths        1     Midnite Sw     Midnite Sw     Adventure
   Droppings             1?    Delta Music      ?              ?
   European Soccer      1-2    Telegames      Telegames      Sports
     Challenge
   F1 Racer             1-2    Atari          Domark         Sports
   Frank Thomas "Big    1-2    Atari          Acclaim        Sports
     Hurt" Baseball
   Galactic Gladiators  1-2      ?            Photosur.      Action/Strategy
   Gorf 2000            1-2?     ?            Krunch Corp.   Arcade
   Gotcha!               1?      ?              ?              ?
   Graham Gooch's World 1-2?   Telegames      Telegames      Sports
     Class Cricket
   Gunship 2000          1     Microprose       ?            Strategy
   Hammerhead            1     Atari          Rainmaker      Action/Arcade
   Indiana Jags          1       ?            Virtual Exp.   Action/Platform
   Iratan Supremecy     1-2      ?            Level Seven    Action/Fighting
   Iron Man/XO-Manowar  1-2    Atari          Acclaim        Action?
   James Pond 3          1     Telegames      Telegames      Platform
   Jagmania              1       ?            Matthias Domin Action
   Jagmarble             1       ?            Matthias Domin Action
   Jagtris               1       ?            Bastian Schick Action/Puzzle
   Kick Off 3           1-2      ?            Anco Software  Sports
   Legion Force Jidai    1?      ?            FORCE Design   Action/Arcade
   Legions of the        1?    Atari          Rebellion      Action/Adventure
     Undead
   Lester the Unlikely   1     DTMC           DTMC           Action/Strategy
   Live Wire            1-2?   Black Scorpion   ?              ?
   Max Force             1?      ?              ?            Action/Shooter
   Miniature Golf       1-2    DTMC           DTMC           Sports
   Mountain Sports      1-2    DTMC           DTMC           Action/Sports
   Nanoterror            1?      ?            Delta Music      ?
   Native                1?      ?            Duranik Sw.    Action/Shooter
   Nerves of Steel       1?      ?            Rainmaker      Action/Adventure
   Painter               1?      ?            Sinister         ?
   Phase Zero           1-8    Atari          Hyper Image    Action
   Phear                1-2    Atari          H2O Design     Puzzle
   Pinball Dreams       1-2    Atari          21st Century   Arcade
   Powerdrive            1?    Telegames      Elite          Action/Driving
   Quake                 1?    Atari          id Software    Action
   Rainbow Warrior       1?      ?            3D Games       Action?
   Return of Magic       1?      ?            Virtual Art.   Adventure?
   Rise of the Robots    1     Time-Warner    Williams Br.   Action/Adventure
   Robotron:2084        1-2    Atari            ?            Action/Arcade
   Rollcage             1-2?     ?            Team 17        Sports/Driving
   Star Alliance        1-2?   Starcat Dev.   Starcat Dev.   Arcade/Action
   Star Raiders 2000     1?    Atari            ?            Action
   Sudden Impact        1-2    Atari          Creative Tal.  Action/Driving
   Super Off-Road       1-2    Telegames        ?            Arcade/Driving
   T-Mek                1-2?   Time-Warner      ?            Arcade
   The Assassin          1     OMC Games      OMC Games      Adventure
   Thea Realm Fighters  1-2    Atari          Atari          Arcade/Action
   Thunderstalker        1?    Telegames      Telegames        ?
   Tin Head             1-2?   Microprose     Microprose       ?
   Tiny Too Adventures  1-2    Atari          Atari          Action/Arcade
   Ultimate Brain Games 1-2?   Telegames        ?            Puzzle
   Virtuoso              1?    Telegames      Williams Br.   Action
   Virtual Warriors     1-2      ?            Rainmaker      Action/Fighting
   Waterworld            1?    Ocean          Ocean            ?
   Wild Cup Soccer      1-2?   Telegames        ?            Action/Sports
   Witchwood            1-2    Atari          Team 17        Action
   World Cup            1-2?     ?            Anco Software  Sports
   Zzyorxx II            1?      ?            Virtual Exp.   Action/Shooter


   Announced Jaguar CD-ROM games:

   Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
   -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
   Age of Darkness       1       ?            OMC Games      Action/Adventure
   Artemis               1?    Springer Sp.   Springer Sp.   Adventure
   Battlechess          1-2    Interplay      Interplay      Strategy
   BIOSFear              1?    Atari          All Systems Go Action/Adventure
   Black Ice/            1?    Atari            ?            Adventure
     White Noise 
   Brett Hull Hockey    1-2    Atari          Ringler        Sports
   Chaos Agenda          1?    Atari            ?            Adventure
   Circle of Four        1       ?            JV Enterprises Adventure
   Commander Blood       1?    Atari            ?            Adventure
   Commando              1     Atari          Microids       Action/Strategy
   Country Grid         1-8    Atari          High Voltage   Puzzle
   Creature Shock        1     Virgin         Argonaut Sw.   Action/Adventure
   Dante's Inferno       1     Atari          Gorilla Sys.   Adventure
   Defcon 1              1     Dark Knight    Dk Kngt/Vis.D  Action/Adventure
   Demolition Man        1     Atari          Virgin         Action
   Deus ex Machina       1       ?            Silmarils      Adventure
   Dragon's Lair II:     1     Readysoft      Readysoft      Arcade
     Time Warp
   Evidence              1       ?            Microids       Action/Adventure
   FIFA International   1-2      ?            Elec. Arts     Sports
     Soccer
   Freelancer 2120       1     Atari          Imagitec       Action/Adventure
   Highlander II         1     Atari          Lore Design    Action/Adventure
   Highlander III        1     Atari          Lore Design    Action/Adventure
   Horrorscope           1?      ?            V-Reel Prod.   Action/Fighting
   Hosenose and Booger  1-2?   Atari          All Systems Go Action
   Jack Nicholas        1-2    Atari          DTMC           Sports
     Cyber Golf
   Ishar Genesis         1     Atari          Silmaris       Adventure
   Kid Grid             1-8    Atari          High Voltage   Puzzle
   Litil Devil           1       ?            Gremlin Int.   Adventure?
   Lobo                  1?      ?            Ocean          Action?
   Magic Carpet          1     Atari          Bullfrog       Action/Arcade
   Max Force             1     Atari          Genus          Action
   Mind-Ripper           1?    Atari            ?            Strategy?
   Mortal Kombat III    1-2    Atari          Williams       Arcade/Fighting
   Need For Speed, The   1       ?            Elec. Arts     Driving
   Neurodancer           1?      ?            PIXIS Int.     Adventure?
   Orb of Bangzai        1       ?            OMC Games      Action/Adventure
   Powerslide            1     Telegames      Williams Br.   Driving
   Return Fire          1-2      ?            Alexandria     Action/Strategy
   Return to Zork        1       ?            Activision     Adventure
   Robinson's Requiem    1?    Atari          Silmarils      Adventure
   Rocky Horror          1     Atari?           ?            Adventure
     Interactive
   Scottish Open        1-2?     ?            Core Design    Sports
     Virtual Golf
   Sinister Missions    1-2      ?            OMC Games      Action/Shooter
   Soul Star             1     Atari          Core Design    Action/Shooter
   Starlight            1-2      ?            V-Reel Prod.   Action/Sports
     Bowl-A-Rama
   Striker '95          1-2    Time-Warner    Rage           Action/Sports
   Swagman               1       ?            Core Design    Adventure
   Thunderhawk           1       ?            Core Design    Action/Shooter
   Tomb Raider           1       ?            Core Design    Action/Adventure
   Varuna's Forces       1     Atari          Accent Media   Action/Adventure
   Virtuoso              1     Telegames      Williams Br.   Action
   Wayne Gretzky NHL    1-2    Time-Warner    Time-Warner    Sports
     Hockey
   Wing Commander III    1       ?            Elec. Arts     Action/Strategy


   Announced Jaguar Virtual Reality Headset games:

   Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
   -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
   Gravon                1       ?            Suma           Action/Sim.
   Zone Hunter           1     Atari          Virtuality     Action

==============================================================================

Q. Where can I get a review and/or comments about ?
 
A: Robert A. Jung (rjung@mac.com) has reviews of some Jaguar games and
   peripherals.  They are available on the world-wide web at his web site,
   at http://www.digiserve.com/eescape/atari/Atari.shtml

==============================================================================
 
Q. Where can I find secrets, tips, and hints for ?
 
A. A comprehensive list of Jaguar cheats and codes is available from "The
   Mage," at http://users.aol.com/TheMage1/jaguar/jagcodes.txt or
   http://members.aol.com/TheMage1/jaguar/jagcodes.txt

   Clay Halliwell maintains the Atari Jaguar Cheats and Codes FAQ, which he
   updates regularly.  It can be found on the world-wide web at
   http://www.atarihq.com/jaglynx/jag/jagcheat.txt

==============================================================================
 
Q. Is there a Jaguar emulator available?
 
A. The world's first Atari Jaguar emulator has been unleashed!  "Project
   Tempest" is written by Ville Linde, and is available for Microsoft Windows,
   Apple Macintosh, and Linux systems.  It's still an early version, but
   already plays several games.  Visit http://pt.emuunlim.com/ for details,
   downloads, and a discussion forum.

==============================================================================
 
Q. Some of my Jaguar games don't have overlays for the keypads.  Where can I
   get them?
 
A. Not all Jaguar games used overlays for the keypad; some titles didn't use
   the keypad at all, while others used the keypad, but the developers did
   not feel that an overlay was needed.  Making your own keypads is certainly
   possible; simply use an existing keypad for a template, draw whatever
   designs you like, then cut and to fit.
 
   Tony Price has made a number of overlays for Jaguar games that didn't
   include them, dust covers for the keypads, and overlays for third-party
   titles.  He can be reached by mail at mfmurdock@earthlink.net, or on the
   internet at http://home.earthlink.net/~mfmurdock/jaguar/jaguar.htm
 
==============================================================================
 
Q. What Jaguar peripherals are available?
 
A: The following Jaguar-related peripherals were released.  Availability will
   vary according to source:

   * Atari Corp.
     1196 Borregas Avenue
     Sunnyvale, CA  94089-1302
     Phone: (800) GO-ATARI  (800-462-8274)  9:00am to 5:00pm PST, M-F

     - CD-ROM PLAYER.  Attaches to the top of the Jaguar console.  Allows the
       Jaguar to play Jaguar CD games.  See the dedicated entry for details.

     - COMPOSITE VIDEO CABLE.  Attaches to the Jaguar expansion port to
       provide a clearer/sharper picture.

     - JAG LINK.  Networking peripheral.  Allows two Jaguars to be connected
       for networked games, up to 100 feet apart.

     - MEMORY TRACK.  Peripheral.  Plugs into the cartridge slot of the
       CD-ROM drive.  Allows Jaguar CD games to be saved for later play.
       Holds up to 128K of data.

     - PRO CONTROLLER.  Game controller.  Provides more action buttons to
       be used in games.  Adds three more "fire" buttons (X, Y, Z, which
       correspond to 7, 8, 9 on the numeric keypad) and two index-finger
       buttons (L and R, which correspond to 4 and 6).  Some games were
       designed/optimized for the Pro Controller (PRIMAL RAGE, HIGHLANDER,
       SUPER BURNOUT, ATARI KARTS, and BATTLEMORPH are the most notable
       ones); other titles, while not specifically written for the Pro
       Controller, are easier to play with the easier access to the keypad.

     - S-VIDEO CABLE.  Attaches to the Jaguar expansion port to provide a
       clearer picture.

     - TEAM TAP.  Controller port expansion.  Allows up to four Jaguar
       controllers to be attached to a single controller port.  With two Team
       Tap adaptors, eight players can play simultaneously on one Jaguar.
       Was sold with the game WHITE MEN CAN'T JUMP and also available
       separately.

     - TEMPEST 2000: THE SOUNDTRACK.  Audio CD.  Contains twelve tracks of
       "techno-rave" rock music by Imagitec Design Inc.  Tracks are either
       remixes or inspired by the soundtrack from the Jaguar game TEMPEST
       2000.

   * Ben Aein
     B.Aein@genie.geis.com
     (301) 251-0997

     - LAPCAT.  Joystick controller.  Lap/table-sized joystick controller.
       12" x 11.5" x 3".  Arcade-quality build, with steel joystick shaft
       and reed contact buttons.  Six large fire buttons are provided, and
       all Jaguar controller keys are available.  Available in left-handed or
       right-handed models (fire buttons on the side of the hand).  A "Lapcat
       Pro" is also available.  Write to Ben for pricing details.

   * Demand Systems
     Phone: (805) 482-7900

     - PRO-STICK.  Joystick controller.  An arcade-quality joystick and
       buttons, mounted on a large base.  Suitable for lap or tabletop use.
       A Jaguar controller is attached to allow use of the keypad and other
       buttons.

   * Else Engineering
     http://home.attbi.com/~delse/
 
     - JAGLINK 2.  Networking interface.  Allows networking of two or more
       Jaguars in a daisy-chained network.  Fully compatible with the
       original (Atari) JagLink, and works with all known Jaguar games that
       support networking.

   * GOAT (Games of All Types) Store (formerly Team 13)
     http://www.goatstore.com/
 
     - JAGUAR JAMMA JOYSTICK.  Joystick controller.  Arcade-quality joystick
       for the Jaguar made with authentic arcade JAMMA components.  Available
       in regular and LX configurations (the LX sports a larger base and
       spread out button configuration).

   * ICD, Inc.
     1220 Rock Street
     Rockford, IL  61101
     Phone: (815) 968-2228, extension 222
     FAX: (815) 968-6888
     GEnie e-mail: ICDINC
     CompuServe e-mail: 76004,1600
     Internet e-mail: icdinc@genie.com

     - CATBOX.  Output/Networking adaptor.  Attaches to the rear of the
       Jaguar, and provides a variety of industry-standard output ports:

         > S-Video, RGB, and composite video
         > Left/right channel RCA jacks
         > Two 1/8th inch stereo headphone jacks (with volume control)
         > Pass-through Jaguar DSP bus
         > RS-232 (modem) port and "CatNet" networking

       The CatNet is a differential pair network that is formed by connected
       multiple Jaguars/CatBoxes with RJ-11 telephone wiring.  Up to 32 units
       can be connected, up to 1,000 feet apart.  Price is $69.95.

     - CATBOX ACCESSORIES.  ICD sells video, audio, and networking adaptors
       and cables for use with the CatBox if you cannot find them locally.
       ICD can also custom-manufacture RGB adaptors to suit most computer
       monitors, per buyer specifications.  Contact ICD Inc. for individual
       prices and details.

   * Sandwich Islands Publishing
     P.O. Box 10669
     Lahaina, HI  96761
     Phone: (808) 661-2715

     - JAGUAR GAMER'S GUIDE.  Game tips book.  Provides codes, tips, maps,
       and solutions for almost 20 Jaguar games.  ISBN is 1-884364-13-6.
       Can be reached at http://gamebooks.com, or send e-mail to
       sales@gamebooks.com

   * ScatoLOGIC
     http://www.scatbox.com/scatbox.html
 
     - SCATBOX.  Networking/signal interface.  Replacement for ICD's Catbox
       (see above), the Scatbox supports networking of up to 128 Jaguars,
       JUGS/Jag-Link compatible RS-232 Serial Port, has analog RGB output,
       monophonic and sterophonic audio outputs, Composite video output,
       S-Video output, serial port auto-select and auto-duplex, and more.
       Available in limited quantities in both regular and translucent
       casings.

   * Songbird Productions
     1736 Chippewa Drive NW
     Rochester, MN 55901
 
     - RAPID FIRE CONTROLLER.  Game controller.  This is a standard Jaguar
       joypad modified to support automatic rapid fire on either the A or B
       buttons. Two rear-mounted pushbuttons toggle the rapid fire circuit,
       and two small LEDs mounted near the A and B buttons indicate whether
       rapid fire is active or not.  Rapid fire can be set to 5, 10, 15, or
       20 pulses per second.  Designed and programmed by Scott Walters.
 
     - J.J.J.  Game controller.  The J.J.J. is an arcade-quality joystick for
       the Jaguar made with authentic JAMMA components.

   * Victor Maxx

     - CYBERMAXX 2.0.  Peripheral.  A "Virtual Reality" helmet that uses
       standard RCA video and audio inputs.  Existing games can be played
       with the helmet display for two-dimensional graphics, but full
       "virtual reality" games requires custom-written software (none exist
       at this time).  The helmet provides 62 degrees of vision and weighs
       one pound.  Includes three IBM PC Cybermaxx games and a VCR tape.

   * Virtual i-O

     - I-GLASSES.  Peripheral.  Shows video images on the lenses of the
       glasses, providing a very large display.  Accepts standard RCA video
       and audio inputs.  Weight is 8 ounces.  The "video" version accepts
       only RCA audio/video inputs, while the "PC" version also accepts SVGA
       input and supports head tracking.  [Ed. note -- ViO had a Jaguar in-
       house, and recommend the i-Glasses for DOOM and WOLFENSTEIN 3D.]

==============================================================================
 
Q. What Jaguar peripherals were announced?

A. The following Jaguar-related peripherals were announced at one time or
   another:

   * Atari Corp.
     1196 Borregas Avenue
     Sunnyvale, CA  94089-1302
     Phone: (800) GO-ATARI  (800-462-8274)  9:00am to 5:00pm PST, M-F

     - VIRTUAL REALITY HEADSET.  Controller/Peripheral.  Allows playing of
       Jaguar virtual reality games, with head and controller tracking.  See
       dedicated entry for details.

     - VOICE MODEM.  Networking/Communications device.  Allows two players to
       play networked games over standard phone lines at 9600 baud.  A
       headset and microphone allows players to talk to each other during the
       game.  Call-waiting support will pause the game if an incoming call
       arrives, and the game can be continued after the call is complete. 
       Project has been suspended indefinitely.

       In addition, rumors of a rotary controller continue to exist, even
       though no official announcement was ever made.  See the dedicated
       section below for details.

   * CSCN (Cybercon Systems Carsten Nipkow)
 
     - MULTIBOX.  Output/Networking adaptor.  Similar to ICD's Catbox, the
       Multibox was supposed to attach to the rear of the Jaguar and
       provide a variety of industry-standard output ports.  In addition,
       the Multibox was supposed to provide error-free networking by using
       error correcting hardware.
 
     - INFRA-RED JAGLINK.  A Jaguar linking system that allowed two Jaguars
       to communicate via infra-red broadcasting.
 
     - RADIO JAGLINK.  A Jaguar linking system that allowed two Jaguars to
       communicate via short-wave radio.  A distance of up to five kilometers
       was promised.

   * Sigma Designs

     - JAGUAR PC CARD.  Computer peripheral.  Sigma Designs is developing a
       card for IBM PCs and compatables that runs Jaguar CD software and acts
       as a ReelMagic MPEG card.  Last announced release date was December
       1994.  No price has been given.

   * Spacetec

     - SPACE PLAYER.  Game controller.  The Space Player is a controller that
       is reported to offer six degrees of movement (up/down, left/right, and
       in/out).  No further details are available at this time.

   * Thrustmaster

     - FLYING YOLK.  Game controller.  A four-directional flight controller
       for use with flying games.  No release date or price has been
       announced.

     - STEERING WHEEL.  Game controller.  A two-directional controller and
       pedal for driving games.  No release date or price has been announced.

   * Time-Warner Cable

     - JAGUAR GAME CHANNEL.  Game service.  Time-Warner Cable's Full Service
       Network (FSN) plans to offer Jaguar games over television cable lines.
       The games are downloaded to the customer and played at home, and game
       instructions can be printed with additional equipment.  Details are
       available from local FSN service providers.

==============================================================================

Q. What's the information on the CD-ROM drive?

A. A double-speed CD-ROM drive was available.  The CD drive has an access
   time of 210 milliseconds, and has a sustained data transfer rate of 352.8K
   per second.  The CD-ROM drive features a modified data bus interface for
   access to the Tom and Jerry chips almost directly, allowing for a higher
   throughput rate on sound and graphics.  Storage on a disc is approximately
   790 megabytes (6,320 megabits).  The CD-ROM drive plugs into the Jaguar's
   cartridge slot.  A pass-through cartridge slot allows cartridges to be
   used with the CD-ROM attached.  Separate memory cartridges allow Jaguar CD
   games to be saved for later play.

   The Jaguar CD format is a non-standard format that is not compatable with
   the ISO-9660 standard.  It uses audio-format sectors for data, which
   allows for 2352 bytes of useable space in each sector.  Unfortunately,
   this leaves no provision for error correction or file system management
   (though errors are detected by the CD drive hardware).  Each disc is
   copy-protected with encrypted data that is specially formatted to look
   like an error.  Attempts to copy a Jaguar CD will fail because it cannot
   read the encrypted data, which means the copy will not work.

   The Jaguar CD allows delivery of full-screen, full-motion video.  The
   CinePak video decompression system has been licensed from SuperMac
   Technologies.  It is a 7K routine in the GPU and can be included in any
   CD-ROM software that needs it, allowing full-screen video at 24 frames per
   second.  Movie quality pictures can then be overlaid on the screen with
   computer generated graphics if the game demands it.  Time-Warner has
   licensed a library of film clips from its movies to Atari.

   The Jaguar CD has "Virtual Light Machine" built in.  This program plays
   audio CDs and generate accompanying color and visual effects that react to
   the music and sounds.  The user can control and select effects with the
   Jaguar controller.  Regular audio CD playback features (volume control,
   track programming, etc.) are also available.

   The Jaguar CD can also display CD+Graphics discs.  Supplimental cartridges
   for Kodak PhotoCD and MPEG-1 (Motion Picture Experts Group) compression
   were considered.  The MPEG cartridge would reportedly include extra RAM
   for buffering and support the whitebook video format.

   The drive was being manufactured by Philips in the United States.  Its
   dimensions are 6.5" x 10.5" x 3.5", and it weighs 1 pound, 10 ounces.  The
   price was $150, and includes the TEMPEST 2000 soundtrack audio disc, a
   sampler for the CD game MYST, and two CD-ROM games: VID GRID and BLUE
   LIGHTNING.

   Atari also developed and patented (#5,607,356) a technology for the Jaugar
   CD called "GameFilm".  Essentally, GameFilm allowed different video clips
   to be mixed and matched in real-time, with seamless integration of video,
   subtitles and soundtracks.  The player would control the movie by making
   choices throughout the game, with multiple choices available at each point.
   The only known GameFilm title was "Caves of Fear", where the player was
   cast as a CIA agent on a mission in Uraguay to stop the development of a
   deadly new virus.  Though the game was neveer finished, its themes and
   situations (up to and including assassinations) would probably have earned
   it a Mature rating.

   Gavin Fance (gavinf@watton19.freeserve.co.uk) has confirmed that Jaguar CD
   games are not region-specific; he was able to buy a North American (NTSC)
   version of MYST and play it on his European (PAL) Jaguar.

==============================================================================

Q. What's the information on the virtual reality headset?

A. Atari Corp. and the Virtuality Group had signed a contract whereupon
   Virtuality would develop virtual reality hwardware and software for the
   Jaguar.  In return, Virtuality would get the rights to port Jaguar VR
   games to their Virtuality arcade consoles.

   Though announced, the Jaguar VR was never produced.  Unofficial reports
   conflict on whether the unit was cancelled, suspended, and/or reworked.
   Reasons given for the inaction ranged from Atari's needs to reassess their
   investments and focus on core business, to the high suggested retail price
   of the Jaguar VR headset, to Virtuality's problems in trying to create
   a mass-market headset that could track head movement fast enough to avoid
   motion sickness after a few minutes of play.

   As originally reported, the Jaguar VR package consisted of two components:

   (1) A lightweight headset (weighs less than one pound).  It can be
       adjusted for fit and works with or without glasses.  Game graphics are
       provided by a single 7", TFT active-matrix color LCD screen, with a
       resolution of 260 by 400 pixels and up to 65,000 colors.  Dual temple
       speakers provide sound, and a built-in microphone allows player
       communication in future networked games.  A custom optical system
       projects a binocular image to both eyes; it is aligned at infinity, so
       focus adjustment is not needed.  Two degrees of freedom (left/right
       and up/down) are available.  Field of view is 52 degrees horizontal by
       40 degrees vertical.

   (2) A tabletop-mounted tracking station.  The station senses the position
       of the controller and the headset with "V-Trak" infra-red tracking.
       The tracking speed is 250 Hz, with a lag time of 4 milliseconds, four
       times faster than Virtuality's arcade hardware.  The tracker has a
       range of approximately 100 degrees; multiple trackers can be daisy-
       chained together to provide a complete 360-degree tracking range, but
       most Jaguar VR games will not require a full 360 degrees.

   The Jaguar VR equipment was designed to be played while sitting down, so
   as to avoid injuries.  if a player moves out of the tracking station's
   range, a safety cutoff would have been triggered to suspend the game.

   Jaguar VR games would have been written for use with the regular
   controller, as well as a two-button "virtual gun" hand-held joystick.  The
   licensing agreement between Atari and Virtuality permitted authorized
   Jaguar third-party software developers to write their own VR titles.

   One product did come out of the Atari/Virtuality agrement.  MISSILE
   COMMAND 3D for the Jaguar provided virtual-reality type play, without the
   need for special equipment or controllers.  The game was later transported
   to Virtuality's arcade systems.

   Two working Jaguar VR prototypes are known to exist; both are owned by
   Jason Smith (jasonmissysmith@attbi.com).  The headsets (and other Atari
   Jaguar prototypes) can be seen on his web site, at
   http://home.attbi.com/~jasonmissysmith/

==============================================================================
 
Q. What's the "Panther"?
 
A. Quick history lesson: Sometime in the late 1980s, Atari Corp. was doing
   research and development on "next generation" video game consoles.  There
   were two systems, a 32-bit machine called the Panther, and a 64-bit
   machine called the Jaguar.  It is reported that work on the Jaguar was
   progressing better/faster than expected, so Atari abandoned the Panther to
   focus their energies on the Jaguar instead.  Supposedly, if both machines
   were fully developed, the Jaguar would have followed the Panther only two
   years later.

   Reports of development work on the Panther have been whispered since 1988;
   some people have erroneously mistaken those rumors to be about the Jaguar.

   The Panther reportedly was considered a "32-bit" machine by Atari, though
   for reasons unknown.  It featured three chips, consisting of a Motorola
   68000 running at 16Mhz, an object processor called the Panther, and an
   Ensoniq sound processor called Otis, featuring 32 sound channels.  The
   Panther could supposedly display 8,192 colors from a palette of 262,144
   colors, and could display 65,535 sprites of any size simultaneously.

   According to Jeff Minter, the Panther's sprite hardware was very similar
   to the object processor in the Jaguar, to the point where both had the
   same limitations.  Putting too many sprites on a single scan-line, for
   instance, would require too much time to draw the line and caused a
   "tearing" effect in the affected row.

   Stefan Walgenbach is the proud owner of a working Panther prototype.  He
   has a web page at http://www.HomeComputer.de/ devoted to all sorts of
   information on the Panther.

==============================================================================
 
Q. What's the "Jaguar II"?
 
A. There's been a little confusion with this topic, since at least two
   separate machines have been called a "Jaguar II."  The first was to have
   been an integrated Jaguar/Jaguar CD-ROM unit.  That project has since been
   cancelled, making the point moot.

   The other Jaguar II was Atari's next video-game console.  Though a final
   design was never reached, initial prototypes were assembled, yielding the
   following information:
 
   * Main chipset (codename "Midsummer") developed by Motorola.
   * Fully backwards compatable with the existing Jaguar.  Would have been
       able to play all Jaguar games and use all Jaguar peripherals.
   * Uses new "Oberon" and "Puck" chips.  "Oberon" was the next generation of
       the Jaguar's "Tom" chip, and "Puck" (also identified as "Thesus") was
       a redesigned "Jerry".
   * "Oberon" was so large that it required a dedicated cooling fan, powered
       by a separate power supply.  It's uncertain if this inefficiency was
       simply due to the unfinished nature of the chip or not.
   * Processing speed "two to four times faster than the Sony PlayStation."
   * Full C/C++ development package available.

   The following is one set of proposed specifications for the Jaguar II:
 
   Size:         10.5" x 12" x 3.5"
   Controls:     Power on/off
   Display:      Resolution up to 1600 x 600 pixels (50 Hz/interlace)
                 32-bit "Extended True Color" display with 16,777,216
                 colors simultaneously (additional 8 bits of supplimental
                 graphics data support possible)
                 Multiple-resolution, multiple-color depth objects
                 (monochrome, 2-bit, 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit) can be
                 used simultaneously
   Ports:        Cartridge slot/expansion port (64 bits)
                 RF video output
                 Video edge connector (video/audio output)
                 (supports NTSC and PAL; provides S-Video, Composite, RGB
                 outputs, accessible by optional add-on connector)
                 Four controller ports
                 Digital Signal Processor port (includes high-speed
                 synchronous serial input/output)
   Controllers:  Eight-directional joypad
                 Size 5" x 4.5" x 1.5", cord 7 feet
                 Six fire buttons (A, B, C, D, E, F)
                 Pause and Option buttons
                 12-key keypad (accepts game-specific overlays)
   
   The Jaguar 2 has seven processors, which are contained in three chips.
   Two of the chips are proprietary designs, nicknamed "Tom" and "Jerry".
   The third chip is a standard Motorola 68EC020 used as a coprocessor.
   Tom and Jerry are built using an 0.3 micron silicon process.  With
   proper programming, all seven processors can run in parallel. 
   
   - "Tom"
     - 1,250,000 transistors, 292 pins
     - Graphics Processing Unit (processor #1)
        - 64-bit RISC architecture (64/128 register processor)
        - 64 registers of 128 bits wide (shadow-buffering)
        - Has access to all 2 x 64 bits of the system bus
        - Can read 128 bits of data in one instruction
        - Rated at 127.902 MIPS (million instructions per second)
        - Runs at 63.951 MHz
        - 2 x 32K bytes of zero wait-state internal SRAM (matrix)
        - Performs a wide range of high-speed graphic effects
        - Programmable
      - Object processor (processor #2)
        - 64-bit RISC architecture
        - Programmable processor that can act as a variety of different video
          architectures, such as a sprite engine, a pixel-mapped display, a
          character-mapped system, and others.
      - Blitter (processor #3)
        - 64 bits read and write at the same time (multibuffering)
        - 8K read buffer (fifo)
        - 8K write buffer (lifo)
        - Performs high-speed logical operations
        - Hardware support for Z-buffering and Gouraud shading
      - Texture Mapping Engine (processor #4)
        - 64-bit RISC
        - 64 bits
        - Programmable risc processor
        - 256K "texture-work" RAM of zero wait-state internal CACHE
        - capable of doing about 900,000 texture-mapped polyons; without
          textures, up to 2,500,000 polyons are possible.
        - realtime Gouraud and Phong shading
      - J/MPEG "COMBI" Chip (processor #5)
        - 64 bits
        - not programmable
        - 8K own data rom (with sinus) table
        - 128K CACHE (fifo)
        - realtime J/MPEG decompression via CACHE (fifo)
      - DRAM memory controller
        - 4 x 64 bits
        - Accesses the DRAM directly
 
   - "Jerry"
      - 900,000 transistors, 196 pins
      - Digital Signal Processor (processor #6)
        - 32 bits (32-bit registers)
        - Rated at 53.3 MIPS (million instructions per second)
        - Runs at 53.3 MHz
        - Same RISC core as the Graphics Processing Unit
        - Not limited to sound generation
        - 96K bytes of zero wait-state internal SRAM
        - CD-quality sound (16-bit stereo 50KHz)
        - Number of sound channels limited by software (minimum 16)
        - Two DACs (stereo) convert digital data to analog sound signals
        - Full stereo capabilities
        - Wavetable synthesis, FM synthesis, FM Sample synthesis, and AM
          synthesis
        - A clock control block, incorporating timers, and a UART
 
   - Motorola 68EC020 (processor #7)
        - Runs at 26.590MHz
        - Perfect 68000 emulation
        - General purpose control processor
 
   Communication is performed with a high speed 64-bit data bus, rated at 2400
   megabits/second.  The 68000 is only able to access 16 bits of this bus at a
   time.  The Jaguar 2 contains eight megabytes (64 megabits) of fast
   page-mode DRAM, in eight chips with 1024 K each.

   Photos of the Jaguar II prototype motherboard are available at
   http://www.atari-history.com/videogames/jaguar/jag2.html

==============================================================================
 
Q. What's the information on the CoJag and CoJag games?
 
A. To briefly recap, after the Jaguar was released, Time-Warner Interactive
   (now a subsidiary of WMS/Midway known as Atari Games) licensed the Jaguar
   architecture for use in arcade games.  These systems were called "CoJag"
   games, and consisted of a Jaguar chipset with additional memory, extra
   storage, and other architectural changes.
 
   Two CoJag games have been released:
 
   * Area 51: A light-gun shooting game for two players.  The Jaguar's 68000
     was replaced with a 68020 or SGI R3K, and ran at 25 MHz.  It was also
     equipped with a four megabytes of RAM and a one gigabyte hard drive.
 
   * Maximum Force: Another light-gun shooting game.  The 68000 was replaced
     with an SGI R3K, and came with six megabytes of RAM and a two gigabyte
     hard drive.
 
   While it was rumored that the TWI games "Primal Rage" and "T-Mek" were
   also CoJag games, this is false; developer Al Vernon has confirmed that
   those titles did not use any aspect of the Jaguar design or chipset.
 
   One gamer (funkster@midwinter.com) reports that he playtested a CoJag
   game, "Freeze," that was never released.  Here's a slightly-edited version
   of his report:
 
     "I saw Freeze a couple weeks ago at a local arcade pinball/video
     game expo.  The game made it to field test but didn't do well, so
     Atari Games axed it early this year.
 
     "Freeze was a puzzle game, most closely related to Bust-A-Move or
     Super Puzzle Fighter II Turbo.  You controlled a character at the
     bottom of a rectangular grid, five wide and eight deep.  You had
     the following controls: move left, move right, throw, and special.
     You start with a fish in your hands; when you press 'throw,' you
     threw it into the grid, where it goes up until it hits something.
     Once your hands are empty, a fish launcher gives you another.
 
     "The goal is to get groupings of three or more similarly-colored
     fish to touch each other, at which point they disappear.  Holes
     are filled in by reverse gravity -- the fish fall up.  The game is
     over when your grid is full of fish or ice.
 
     "Here's where it gets original: when you get a group of fish to
     disappear, you "freeze" a couple of fish on your opponent's field,
     starting at the top and working down.  A frozen fish doesn't work
     for groupings; fish are unfrozen by making a group nearby.  Empty
     slots get frozen too (the ice is empty).
 
     "The 'special' button is for a special attack.  When you start the
     game, you pick a character, which also decides which special attack
     you get.  I didn't play that much of the game, so I don't know how
     the special works or when you get it.  You could play one or two
     players simultaneously.  One player meant playing against computer
     opponents, along with a bizarre story -- I usually played the
     monkey character, who was searching for an alarm clock so he
     wouldn't oversleep, and he asked his opponents for a clock.
 
     "The game was pretty fun, and the graphics were nice.  It had a
     look like Trog -- simple 3D, bright saturated colors.  It's a shame
     it didn't fare better in field test."

   Pictures of the Freeze prototype cabinet and game screen can be found at
   http://www.cyberroach.com/cyromag/two/woa.htm

   Scott Walters (swalters@flash.net) claims that the unreleased Atari
   fighting game, "Vicious Circle", was also developed as a CoJag game.
   Images and information on this title is available at
                   http://www.klov.com/V/Vicious_Circle.html

   In a really interesting twist to the CoJag legacy, Scott also reveals that
   unmodified Jaguars were used as the main controller for two "kiddie rides".
   The Jaguar was used in three rides by Carousel International -- Speedster
   II, Skycopter II, and SpaceGuy (never released).  All of the rides were
   programmed by Mario Perdue, who wrote Breakout 2000.  The rides are no
   longer manufactured, but can still be found near supermarkets, K-Marts,
   and some Chuck E. Cheese pizza parlors to this day.

==============================================================================
 
Q. Was there a difference in Jaguar games/units sold in different countries?
   Do I need to keep track of PAL and NTSC versions of a game?

A. There is no difference in the Jaguar game software.  A properly-written
   Jaguar game detects PAL or NTSC at startup and changes the playfield size
   and game speeds accordingly.  A properly-written Jaguar game will run at
   the same speed on either machine.  There are no regional or national
   market lock-outs as there are for other game consoles.

   The Jaguar consoles themselves were configured differently, according to
   the country they were sold in.  The primary differences were in the video
   output format (NTSC or PAL) and the power adapters (110 volt or 220 volt).
   Due to the Jaguar's use of an external adapter, a step-down transformer is
   not needed.  A local PSU can be used so long as it matches these
   specifications:
 
         1. 9 volt direct current (DC)
         2. 1.2 amps
         3. Center pin negative

   To use an American (NTSC) Jaguar in the UK, the PSUs from old Sinclair
   computers and Sega Game Gears can be used without problems. 
 
   To use an American (NTSC) Jaguar in Europe, you will need a new power
   adapter and a SCART lead to supply the Jaguar's RGB signals to the TV.
   Some European TV sets might have also required changing the Jaguar display
   from a 60Hz frame rate to 50Hz.
 
   The 50Hz/60Hz frame rate is set by soldering pads on the bottom of the
   Jaguar PCB.  On an NTSC Jaguar, they're located on the bottom of the PCB
   near the controller ports.  The set labelled "R140" determines between
   50Hz and 60Hz.
 
   Finding R140 depends on which motherboard is in your Jaguar.  As "Stone"
   (the_stony_1@hotmail.com) writes, "The location of R140 and whether it
   is labelled or not depends on the revision of the Jaguar chipset.  I
   have two Jaguars, both PAL, one K-series and one M-series.  The K series
   has no silk-screen printing on the underside of the circuit board (and
   thus the links are not labelled).  The M-series has them labelled so
   it's easy to figure out which resistor to remove. 
 
   "My BJL FAQ contains a section on building a 50/60Hz switch; the URL is
   http://addie.voicegateway.com/bjl.asp -- please note that this mod is
   dependent on your TV being able to accept the signal; you may find it
   'letterboxes' it so you can see the whole screen, which isn't what you
   want. :)"
 
   If you have a K-series motherboard (which does not label the links), Russ
   Juckes (juckes@russandem.co.uk) gives instructions for finding them:

   "Hold the Jaguar PCB with the Joystick ports to the bottom.  On the
   underside of the board, near the joystick ports, and to the left of centre
   there are four links, the top and the bottom one bridged.  (Both with zero
   ohm resistors).  Above them there is another link, with a brown resistor.

   "The bottom link is the one that needs to be broken.  I used a penknife to
   scratch away the solder, and then a needle-nosed pair of pliers to break
   the resistor.

   "The links are *not* labelled in any way.  As another guide to make sure
   you are about to snip the correct link, they are placed directly
   underneath a chip (which is obviously on the top of the PCB!) so if you
   use a soldering iron, be careful!"

   Once you have located R140, connect the two points for 50Hz, or leave them
   disconnected for 60Hz, as follows:

             60Hz          50Hz
              o-o   R135    o-o
              o o   R136    o o   (Information courtesy of Martin Zimmer,
              o o   R137    o o    marz@haari.mayn.sub.de)
              o o   R140    o-o

   PAL Jaguars sold in Europe have the R140 pads connected with a zero ohm
   SMD resistor, which can be removed with a soldering iron.  It is possible
   to wire a switch to the points, allowing the Jaguar to be toggled between
   50Hz/60Hz.  This is mainly useful for PAL Jaguars to play games at the
   original speed and screen resolution of the NTSC version.

==============================================================================
 
Q. Hey!  My Jaguar makes a quiet hissing sound!  What's going on?  Is it
   dangerous?
 
A. Early Atari Jaguars had a rumored problem with the console hissing softly.
   Atari had cited several reasons for the hissing noise.  Some have said
   that the sound is from the RF generator.  The RF shield has holes in it
   (ostensibly to help air flow and keep the unit cool), and it is believed
   that the holes produce the noise.

   Others said the sounds are produced by coil L29 which is responsible for
   the proper voltage regulation to +10.0V, together with U38.  The coil's
   copper wire vibrates when the current through it changes abruptly, making
   the hiss.
 
   There are two solutions: 1) Use plastic spray or silicone rubber glue to
   fix the coil's wire. 2) Replace the original Jaguar power-supply with a
   variable power-source, using 7.5V DC instead of 9V DC (it is not certain
   whether the Jaguar CD will require 9V DC, which would make this "fix"
   unworkable with the CD drive).

   In any case, the "hissing" noise was not dangerous, but merely annoying.
   It was usually audible only if you put your ear next to the unit and
   listen closely, and is not interference in the audio output.  It is
   roughly analogous to the buzz made by electric clocks.

   Most later Jaguars did not have this problem, though a few rare cases have
   been noted.

==============================================================================

Q. My Jaguar comes up with a red screen instead of a game!  Is it broken?

A. Most often, the "red screen" problem appears after the Jaguar logo has
   disappeared off the TV screen, and is caused by one of the following:

   1. Poor contact between the Jaguar and the cartridge (most likely).  Make
   sure that the cartridge is firmly seated in the cartridge slot, and that
   contacts are not dirty/dusty.

   2. Bent pins in the cartridge slot (rare).  This may be caused by rough
   edges on some cartridges.  The pins should be carefully straightened.

   3. Defective cartridge (rare).  If the red screen only appears with one
   cartridge but not others, the game may be defective.  Exchange it for
   another.

   If the Jaguar logo appears without problems, then the Jaguar is probably
   working fine, and it's only the data transfer between the unit and the
   cartridge that's causing the problem.

==============================================================================
 
Q. I've heard stories about the Jaguar version of DOOM having network errors
   when playing with two Jaguars linked together.  Are they real?  If so,
   what causes the problem, and can I avoid it?
 
A. There is some truth to the reports -- when linking two Jaguars together
   for multiplayer DOOM games, network errors sometimes appear which
   interfere with the gameplay.  At worst, the game resets to the start of
   the current level, which can be annoying if you're in the middle of a
   heated Deathmatch firefight.
 
   The problem stems from several causes.  The networking code in DOOM was
   not thoroughly tested before release, because the game was finished before
   Atari settled on the final specifications for the JagLink cable (the cable
   came out almost a year after DOOM did).  As a result, this causes some
   problems due to integration differences.  On the other hand, some of the
   folks playing networked DOOM are using their own home-made link cables,
   which might not have enough shielding, which also causes errors.  There
   are reports that earlier Jaguar models are more susceptible to errors as
   well, but the evidence is inconclusive.
 
   Recommendations?  Set up your Jaguars in an area relatively clean of
   electromagnetic interference, make sure you are using a well-shielded
   cable, and cross your fingers.  And remember that, even with an
   occassional networking error, DOOM is still lots of fun with a friend
   (or foe).
 
==============================================================================

Q: What's the wiring schematic for the Jaguar controller?

A: Uwe Roeger (uwer@aragon.bb.bawue.de) reverse-engineered the Jaguar
   controller port and dissected a Jaguar controller to provide the
   following circuit diagram:

   Padport 4  Padport 3  Padport 2  Padport 1
   (yellow)   (orange)   (red)      (brown)               74HC244
     |          |          |          |                   ______
     |          |          |          |         R1 4k7   |      |
     |          |          |          |          |       |      |  Padport 6
   Pause -------|----------|----------|----------+----- 2| -|)- |18- (blue)
     |          |          |          |                  |      |
     |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R2 4k7   |      |
     |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 10
    "A"--|<-+  "B"--|<-+  "C"--|<-+  Opt -|<-+---+----- 4| -|)- |16- (black)
     |          |          |          |                  |      |
     |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R3 4k7   |      |
     |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 11
   Right-|<-+  "1"--|<-+  "2"--|<-+  "3"--|<-+---+----- 6| -|)- |14- (grey)
     |          |          |          |                  |      |
     |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R4 4k7   |      |
     |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 12
   Left -|<-+  "4"--|<-+  "5"--|<-+  "6"--|<-+---+----- 8| -|)- |12- (l.blue)
     |          |          |          |                  |      |
     |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R5 4k7   |      |
     |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 13
   Down -|<-+  "7"--|<-+  "8"--|<-+  "9"--|<-+---+-----11| -|)- |9-- (pink)
     |          |          |          |                  |      |
     |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R6 4k7   |      |
     |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 14
    Up --|<-+  "*"--|<-+  "0"--|<-+  "#"--|<-+---+-----13| -|)- |7-- (white)
                                                         |______|

              Padport 9: Ground (violet) -- Pin 1,10,15,17,19 on 74HC244
              Padport 7: +5 VDC (green)  -- Pin 20 on 74HC244

   SYMBOL KEY
   ==========
     --|<--   1N4148 Diode
       +      Wire connexion
     Rx 4k7   Standard resistor, 4700 Ohms, .25 Watts (all resistors are
                pull-ups; i.e. tied to +5VDC on one end)

   Padport numbers correspond to those on a standard 15-pin SUB-D plug.  The
   colors of the wires may be different in other versions of the controller.

==============================================================================

Q. What's this about a rotary controller?  What games use it?  How do I make
   one for myself?

A. TEMPEST 2000 has hidden in it an option for a rotary controller (at the
   "Game Options" menu, press Pause on both controllers to activate the
   "Controller Type").  No plans for an official Atari rotary controller were
   announced, but many TEMPEST fans have been trying to build such a
   controller, to give the game a feel that's close to its arcade original.

   Andy Light has written instructions for taking a Jaguar joypad and an
   Atari 2600 Driving Controller and building a rotary controller with the
   parts.  His instructions are condensed below.  READ THE INSTRUCTIONS
   THOROUGHLY BEFORE ASSEMBLY -- there are some areas that are left to the
   whim of the builder, and advance planning is highly recommended.

                                    * * *

   ANDY LIGHT'S JAGUAR ROTARY CONTROLLER INSTRUCTIONS
   Parts needed: Atari Jaguar controller
                 Atari 2600 Driving Controller (NOT the paddles)
                 13 wires, preferably of separate colors
                 Buttons
                 A board or box or shell to mount everything on/in
 
   1. Open the driving controller by removing the two underside screws.
   Inside is a top-like device or a grey box with three wires coming out of
   it.  This is the encoder.  Pull the driving controller's knob off the
   encoder's shaft, then remove the encoder by unscrewing the nut that holds
   it in place.  Disconnect the wires from the encoder.

   2. Open the Jaguar controller.  There are four screws on the bottom
   holding it together, behind the round rubber pads.  Inside the controller
   are two circuit boards connected by a ribbon of wires.  The bottom board
   is for the numeric keypad and is held by two screws.  Remove the screws
   and take out the keypad.

   3. Disconnect the wire ribbon from the keypad by melting the solder.
   CAREFUL!  This is delicate work -- get help if you need it.  Solder the
   thirteen wires where the ribbon connection was; do not confuse them.

   4. From the left side of the board (the side that says "P2"), I've
   numbered the wires as follows:
      1) Common         5) Button A       9) Button C      13) Down
      2) Right          6) Button B      10) Pause
      3) Option         7) Button B      11) Up
      4) Option         8) Button C      12) Left
 
   5. On the encoder, connect wire #1 to the center terminal, #2 to the right
   terminal, and #12 to the left terminal.  The rotary part of the controller
   is now finished.

   6. How to connect the other controls is up to you.  I'm using arcade
   buttons, a thumbpad, and a switch (to toggle joypad or rotary control)
   mounted in an Atari 5200 trak-ball controller case.  You can mount a
   joystick, extra buttons, or other features for your own controller.
   Buttons and empty control boxes are available at stores such as Radio
   Shack.

   Wiring for the other signals are as follows:
         Up       - wires #1 and #11       Button A - wires #1 and #5
         Down     - wires #1 and #13       Button B - wires #6 and #7
         Pause    - wires #1 and #10       Button C - wires #8 and #9
         Option   - wires #3 and #4
   Because wire #1 has multiple uses, you will either need to string it or
   split it for each destination.

   7. Reassemble and mount everything according to your design.  For better
   spin, you can glue lead fishing sinkers to the inside of the knob, and
   lubricate the shaft of the encoder with light oil or silicone lubricant.

   That's it!  Please forgive me for any mistakes in my grammer, terminology,
   spelling, etc.  If you encounter any problems, feel free to e-mail me at
   ALIGHT55@AOL.COM.  Good luck!

==============================================================================

Q. I want something better than RF output from my Jaguar.  What do I do?
 
A. Atari had an S-Video cable and a Composite video cable available for use
   with the Jaguar.  See the "Peripherals" section for details.

   If you are willing to build your own, the schematics for the expansion
   port are as follows:

             Pinouts for Jaguar Video Cable
        (view is looking at the rear of the Jaguar)
      01A 02A 03A 04A 05A 06A 07A 08A 09A 10A 11A 12A
      --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
      --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
      01B 02B 03B 04B 05B 06B 07B 08B 09B 10B 11B 12B

      01A - Left Audio           01B - Right Audio
      02A - Audio Ground         02B - Audio Ground
      04A - Chroma Ground        04B - Red
      05A - Blue                 05B - Composite Sync (can also be used
      06A - Horizontal Sync                            for vertical sync)
      07A - Green                07B - Luma Ground
      08A - Chroma               08B - Luma
                                 10B - Video Ground
      11A - +10V power supply    11B - Composite Video


               S-Video Cable
      ##\                           /---(##- P2 RCA Male (Red)
      ###                          /
   P1 ###>>--(Shielded cable)-----<-----(##- P3 RCA Male (White)
      ###                          \                           ___
      ##/                           \---<##  P4 4 pin SVHS   3/. .\4
   Jaguar                                       Mini-DIN    1| . . |2
                                                Plug Male     \_=_/ (front)
   Conn    Pin       Signal     Conn  Pin
  +----+--------+--------------+----+-----+
    P2   Center   Right Audio    P1  01B
    P2   Shell    Audio Ground   P1  02B
    P3   Center   Left Audio     P1  01A
    P3   Shell    Audio Ground   P1  02A
    P4      1     Luma Ground    P1  07B
    P4      3     Luma           P1  08B
    P4      4     Chroma         P1  08A
    P4      2     Chroma Ground  P1  04A
    P4    Shell   Not Connected  P1  N/A


               Composite Video Cable
      ##\                           /---(##- P2 RCA Male (Red)
      ###                          /
   P1 ###>>--(Shielded cable)-----<-----(##- P3 RCA Male (White)
      ###                          \
      ##/                           \---(##- P4 RCA Male (Yellow)
   Jaguar

   Conn    Pin       Signal     Conn  Pin
  +----+--------+--------------+----+-----+
    P2   Center   Right Audio    P1  01B
    P2   Shell    Audio Ground   P1  02B
    P3   Center   Left Audio     P1  01A
    P3   Shell    Audio Ground   P1  02A
    P4   Center   Comp Video     P1  11B
    P4   Shell    Video Ground   P1  10B


   For Jaguar owners who wish to use SCART, a Jaguar-to-SCART RGB cable can
   be made as follows:

   SCART socket:
       20  18  16  14  12  10   8   6   4   2
   +--------------------------------------------+
   \   --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   |
    \                                           |
     |   --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  -- |
     +------------------------------------------+
         19  17  15  13  11   9   7   5   3   1

   RGB connection using an 8-pin shielded cable:

    SCART     Signal      Jaguar A/V port
   +-----+---------------+---------------+
       6    Left Audio         1A
       2    Right Audio        1B
       4    Audio Ground       2A
      15    Red                4B
       7    Blue               5A
      11    Green              7A
      16    H-Sync (Blank)     6A
      20    Composite Sync     5B
      17    Video Ground      10B  (connected by cable shield)


   Markus Hall submits the following SCART variation, for Jaguar units
   that do not work with the Jaguar-to-SCART cable given above:
 
    SCART plug (solder side):
        20  18  16  14  12  10   8   6   4   2
    +--------------------------------------------+
    \   --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   |
     \                                           |
      |   --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  -- |
      +------------------------------------------+
          19  17  15  13  11   9   7   5   3   1
 
    RGB connection using an 8-core shielded cable:
 
     SCART     Signal      Jaguar A/V port
    +-----+---------------+---------------+
        6    Left Audio         1A
        4    Audio Ground       2A --+
        2    Right Audio        1B   |
        -    Audio Ground       2B --+
       15    Red                4B
        7    Blue               5A
       16    Vertical Sync      5B
       11    Green              7A
       17    Video Ground       10B  (connected by cable shield)
       20    Comp Video (H-Sync)11B

==============================================================================
 
Q. How did the ComLynx port on the Jaguar work?  Could I connect my Lynx to
   it?

A. The Jaguar does not have a ComLynx port per se, but has a ComLynx signal
   on the system bus.  An expansion port add-on would have made the port
   available, and developers had announced plans for such accessories.  It is
   possible to daisy-chain multiple Jaguars for multiplayer games into a
   "Jaguar network".  In theory, it would have also been possible to connect
   Jaguars and Lynxes, though no plans for cross-system software were ever
   finalized.

   There was also talk that the Jaguar's ComLynx signal could allow Lynxes to
   be used as peripherals: software could have been developed to allow Lynxes
   to be part of a Jaguar game as "smart" controllers.  Again, no actual
   plans were ever announced.

   For enterprising engineers who wish to build a ComLynx cable for two
   Jaguars, the following schematics from jonin@netcom.com are available.
   USE AT YOUR OWN RISK!

                                    * * *

          12 Contact IDE Card Edge Connector (Atari Jaguar DSP Connector)    

   View from the front of the connector (not the solder side):

              Top                             Cable pinouts
        7  8  9 10 11 12              Jaguar 1            Jaguar 2
   L  +------------------+  R         2 (TX) ______  ______ 2 (Tx)
   e  | x  x  x  x  x  x |  i                      \/
   f  | x  x  x  x  x  x |  g         3 (RX) ______/\______ 3 (Rx)
   t  +------------------+  h         6 (Ground) __________ 6 (Ground)
        6  5  4  3  2  1    t
                Key signals: 2 - Transmit, 3 - Receive, 6 - Ground

   Assembly Notes:
     As shown, the only 3 wires needed for the cable are 2, 3 and 6 (Tx, Rx,
     and Ground).  All of these wires are on the bottom connector, so that
     is a good indicater of which way the cable plugs in the Jaguar.
     Shielded and RF-Choked cables work best.  Due to the nature of this
     connector, it will be hard to shield this cable completely.

     If you cannot find a 12-contact IDE Card Edge Connector, a 10-contact
     version can be used.  A quick one can be built with no soldering using
     JDR MicroDevices (Part# IDE10).  This is made for ribbon cable, but you
     can use regular shielded cables with a little work.  As long as lines 2,
     3, and 6 remain properly connected, there should be no difference.

   Usage tips:
   * DO NOT PLUG THIS CABLE IN UPSIDE-DOWN!  You may damage internal
       components if you plug it incorrectly.
   * TURN OFF BOTH JAGUARS BEFORE CONNECTING.  You may damage internal
       components if you do not.
   * Since there isn't much strengh in the wires, remove the cable by the
       connectors.

==============================================================================
 
Q. Agh!  My Jaguar is broken!  How can I fix it?
 
A. Unforutnately, with the dissolution of Atari Corp., repair or replacement
   of broken Jaguars is no longer available; Atari/JTS does not have any
   units remaining for sale or replacement.  On the other hand, with the low
   price of clearance Jaguars today, it isn't expensive to buy a new unit.
 
   In Great Britian, Telegames UK will offer to repair your Jaguar for a fee.
   They can be reached at:
 
                         TeleMail
                         Kilby Bridge, Wigston,
                         Leicester LE18 3TE, UK
                         Tel. +44-116-2880445
                         Fax. +44-116-2813437

==============================================================================

Q. Where can I get other information about the Jaguar?

A. Publications:

   - Syzygy Magazine                 Newsletter covering current and classic
     Jason Cody                      video-game consoles, with news, reviews,
     P.O. Box 512                    and other information.  Lots of Jaguar
     Flagler Beach, FL 32136         coverage.  Published quarterly.
     http://www.syzygy-magazine.com/

   - Instant Replay                  Newsletter devoted to the Jaguar, with
     7570 South Manor Avenue         news and reviews.  Write to Frank Eva
     Oak Creek, WI 53154             for more information.

   - Wild Cat                        A one-man, home-made Atari video gaming
     Phil Patton                     "fanzine."  Subscriptions are $12/year
     131 Dake Ave.                   for eight issues, at 12 pages each
     Santa Cruz, CA  95062           issue.  Covers all Atari consoles and
                                     computers.


   Internet/USENET newsgroups and services:

   - rec.games.video.atari

       USENET newsgroup.  Contains news for all Atari video-game systems.

   - World-Wide Web Pages

       JagFest is an annual convention held for Jaguar enthusiasts:
         http://jaguar.holyoak.com/jagfest/

       Go Atari is a web site that sells Atari software and hardware:
         http://www.goatari.com/

       Telegames UK sells Jaguar consoles, games, accessories:
         http://www.telegames.co.uk

       The Electric Escape is the official home of the Jaguar FAQ.
         http://www.digiserve.com/eescape/atari/Atari.shtml

       Jaguar Explorer On-line is a free electronic newsletter covering the
       latest news on the Jaguar (and other Atari-related matters):
         http://www.atarihq.com/jeo/
 
       The Jaguar Community Webring is a collection of web sites devoted to
       all aspects of the Jaguar:
         http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Vista/6856/JCU-WebRing.html

       The Open Directory Project has a massive list of Jaguar web sites:
         http://dmoz.org/Games/Video_Games/Console_Platforms/Atari/Jaguar_64/

       Carl Forhan's (Songbird Productions) numerous Lynx and Jaguar
%      projects can be found at http://songbird-productions.com

       Wes Powell's Jagu-Dome features a variety of Jaguar resources,
       including new game news, sound clips, and MP3 files for the never-
       released DEFENDER 2000 soundtrack CD(!).
         http://jaguar.holyoak.com/

       Starcat Developments and Jaguar City have joined forces to create
       a German/English web site for developers and enthusiasts.
         http://www.atari-jaguar64.de/

       The Atari Lynx and Jaguar Club Deutschland is on the web:
         http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Park/6679/

       The GOAT (Games of All Types) Store hosts the Jaguar Cartridge Label
       Varations FAQ, along with selling nifty Jaguar stuff:
         http://www.goatstore.com/jagcartFAQ.txt

       General-purpose Atari/Jaguar Web pages:
         http://www2.ecst.csuchico.edu/~jschlich/
         http://www.redsun.net/jaguar/
         http://www.mcc.ac.uk/~dlms/atari.html
         http://dcpu1.cs.york.ac.uk:6666/~andrew/jaguar/
         http://rzserv2.fh-lueneburg.de:8080/Jaguar/
         http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Heights/5916/
         http://www.cwo.com/~holstine/jz/us640.htm
 
       Also, Yahoo!'s list of Atari Jaguar web sites can be found at
      
http://www.yahoo.com/Recreation/Games/Video_Games/Systems/Atari/Jaguar/

       Llamasoft has a web page which contains updates on upcoming Jaguar
       projects, as well as ruminations on lovely llamas, hot music CDs, and
       other musings from Jeff Minter:
         http://www.magicnet.net/~yak/


   Mailing list:
 
   - Atari Jag-mail
 
       J. Sinn runs a Jaguar e-mail newsletter.  For subscription
       information, write to j-sinn@ellijay.com


   BBS:

   - CATScan

       (209) 239-1552, 300/1200/2400/9600/14400 bps.  Single line.

       The BBS is completely dedicated to Atari products and Atari video game
       consoles.  Includes screen shots, press releases, pictures, and other
       files.  Run by Don Thomas of Atari Corp.

   - Video Game Information Service.

       (201) 509-7324, 300/1200/2400/9600/14400 bps. Multiple lines

       Located in West Orange, New Jersy (USA).  The BBS is completely
       dedicated to video gaming, and maintains files of cheats and reviews
       for all game systems.  Carries video-game-related conferences from
       other computer networks, including Fidonet, Worldnet, and Globalnet.


   On-line services:

   - America On-Line

       The PC Games/Video Games discussion group has areas devoted to the
       Atari Lynx and the Atari Jaguar consoles.  Use the keyword PC GAMES,
       then go to the Video Games discussion board.  From there, select Atari
       Discussion, then the console of your choice.

   - GEnie

       A dedicated/expanded Jaguar roundtable has been established.  Type
       M475;1 to reach it.  For assistance regarding the roundtable, send
       e-mail to JAGUAR$ on GEnie.

==============================================================================
 
Q. How was development for the Jaguar done?
 
A. Jaguar game development environments existed for the Atari TT030 computer
   or an IBM PC/compatible.  Art development could be performed on any
   machine, whether a low-end Apple Macintosh or commercial rendering
   software such as SoftImage.  Wavefront's "GameWare" was the official 2D/3D
   graphics development system; Atari itself used GameWare for in-company
   development, and registered third-party Jaguar developers could buy
   GameWare licenses at special discount prices.

   Estimated price for a developer's package was $9,000 for the TT030 setup,
   and $7,500 for the PC/compatible platform.  The package included a Jaguar
   development unit, documentation, and development/debugging software.
   The Jaguar had modified boot firmware to run the development board (the
   "Alpine board"), and it had a cable coming out to provide signals to the
   Alpine board that are not normally present via the cartridge connector.

   CD-ROM developement packages (including the cartridge development kit)
   were ranged at about $8,000, and were upgradeable from the card-only kit.

   Software routines packaged with the system included a multi-channel
   polyphonic FM/Wavetable synth; JPEG decompression; video set-up; drawing
   primitives; 3D rendering with gourad shading, texture mapping, and camera
   manipulation.  GCC is the primary 68000 C compiler; support for other
   languages was not available from Atari, but developers were free to use
   whatever tools they may prefer.  The development toolkit ran under DOS,
   TOS, or Linux.  Work was proceeding on a Linux development system using
   the GNU tools.

   The centerpiece of the TT030 deveopment platform was DB, an assembly-
   language level debugging tool.  The Jaguar and the TT030 were connected
   with a parallel cable, and software could be debugged interactively
   without interfering with the Jaguar's screen display.  DB supported the
   use of scripts and aliases, which simplified the use of complex or common
   functions.

   Support for the development packages was primarily provided by Brainstorm
   (Atari France), who worked closely with Atari Corp.

   Atari granted final code approval, but did not see the need to "censor"
   games.  Every game was given one man-month of compatibility and quality
   testing before it was approved.  Atari offered technical support via FAX,
   mail, electronic mail and voice.  Atari allowed developers to source their
   own cartridges, documentation and shells if desired.  Jaguar software is
   encrypted with a proprietary key, thus preventing unauthorized developers
   from releasing Jaguar software.

   Cross Products (SNASM) offered an alternative Jaguar Development system.
   It came with a multiwindowed debugger, assemblers, compilers, and SCSI
   support, for approximately $3,700.  The package allowed for full screen,
   source level debugging of multiple processors, in C or assembler.  This
   was software only for the IBM PC; the Jaguar development hardware (Alpine
   board, modified Jaguar, etc.) had to be purchased separately from Atari.

   Ambitious hobbyists have started their own unendorsed Jaguar development
   efforts, with several "home-brewed" development systems and electronic
   documentation of the Jaguar's inner workings.  Several games have been
   written for play on the "Jaguar Server" development system (requires some
   hardware modification to an existing Jaguar, and an IBM PC or Atari ST
   computer).
 
   Information about these efforts may be found on the web at the following
   sites:
 
     - "Jaguar Server" Development system
         http://hem.passagen.se/isvar/jaguar_server/jserver.html
 
     - "Behind Jaggi Lines" Development system
         http://rghx54.gp.fht-esslingen.de/students/mt/elw5basc/jaguar/
 
     - Jaguar Underground Mailing List
         http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/1460/ugd.html
 
     - Gavin's Jaguar Hardware page
         http://www.cee.hw.ac.uk/~ceegbs/jaghard.html

   In addition, Starcat Developments of Germany has made the official
   Jaguar development manual available exclusively for downloading on their
   home page (http://www.starcat-dev.de/).

==============================================================================
  
Q. Where is the encryption key for Jaguar games?  Now that Hasbro has
   declared the Jaguar an "open system", the key should be available to the
   public, right?
 
A. Finally, yes -- in the beginning of 2001, the Classic Gaimg Expo announced
   that they had finally recovered the software encryption codes for the
   Jaguar and the Lynx.  The codes (and supporting software tools) have been
   released into the public domain.  The codes are available on the web at
   http://www.cgexpo.com/encrypt.html
 
==============================================================================
  
Q. Is there a way for people to write their own Jaguar games without the
   encryption codes?
 
A: Certainly!  Hobbists and developers have been writing their own Jaguar
   games for a while now; the lack of an encryption key simply means they
   can't distribute the game to non-developers.
 
   To work around this need, JUGS -- the Jaguar Unmodified Game Server -- was
   developed.  JUGS is a computer hardware/software package that allows you to
   download Jaguar games from your personal computer to a Jaguar and then run
   them.  With dozens of homebrewed Jaguar programs in existence, this opens
   up a new source of software for the Jaguar enthusiast.
 
   To use JUGS, you need the following:
     * A copy of the game BattleSphere.
     * An IBM-compatible PC with a RS-232 communications port.
     * A JagLink interface.
 
   For more information about JUGS, ordering information, and available
   developer titles, visit http://www.buyjugs.com/

   For general-purpose information, there is a  Jaguar programming FAQ:
     http://www.atari-jaguar64.de/prog_info/programming_e.html

==============================================================================